most side effects from vaccination are mild, such as soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site. during the first year of life, many babies suffer serious, life-threatening illnesses and medical events, such as sudden infant death syndrome (sids). the challenge is to determine when a medical event is directly related to a vaccination. smallpox is a serious infection, fatal in 30% to 40% of cases, and caused by the variola major or variola minor virus. the information below about side effects of hib and smallpox vaccination is from the centers for disease control and prevention. the vis describes common and rare side effects, if any, of the vaccine.
the cdc and fda established in 1990. according to the cdc, vaers is used “to detect possible signals of adverse events associated with vaccines.” (a signal in this case is evidence of a possible adverse event that emerges in the data collected.) anyone, such as a parent, a health care provider, or friend of the patient, who suspects an association between a vaccination and an adverse event, may report that event and information about it to vaers. and, it is probable that not all adverse events resulting from vaccination are reported to vaers. the cdc established this system in 1990. the vsd is a collection of linked databases containing information from large medical groups. researchers can access the data by proposing studies to the cdc and having them approved. the medical groups providing information to vsd may have patient populations that are not representative of large populations in general. the system is used mainly to monitor new vaccines.
doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.40364 findings in an online cohort study including 19 586 adults who received a covid-19 vaccination, the factors most strongly associated with adverse effects were full vaccination dose, brand of vaccine, younger age, female sex, and having had covid-19 before vaccination. the objectives of this study were to describe adverse effects and identify factors associated with adverse effects after covid-19 vaccination in participants in an online cohort study. in addition, the study sought to identify factors associated with more severe adverse effects. when participants reported 2 doses of vaccine in a monthly survey, the reported adverse effects were associated with the second vaccine dose.
after 1 dose of bnt162b2 or mrna-1273, 8680 or 8682 participants completed the adverse effects survey and 5629 of 8682 (64.9%) reported adverse effects. receipt of mrna-1273 vaccine (vs bnt162b2), female sex, and prior covid-19 were associated with higher odds of reporting severe or very severe adverse effects. in this study, people with prior covid-19 had greater odds of adverse effects and more severe adverse effects after covid-19 vaccination. this may contribute to both measurement bias through undermeasurement of vaccine receipt or covid-19 diagnosis and selection bias if participants from different groups or participants with adverse effects responded differentially to surveys. author contributions: dr beatty had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
have you had a reaction following a vaccination? contact your healthcare provider. report an adverse event using the vaers online form or the downloadable vaers accepts reports of adverse events that occur following vaccination. anyone rare instances of adverse events following covid-19 vaccinations have been reported to the vaccine adverse event reporting system., .
vaers accepts and analyzes reports of possible health problems—also called “adverse events”—after vaccination. as an early warning system, vaers cannot prove most side effects from vaccination are mild, such as soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site. some vaccines are associated with fever, rash, and the most common vaccine adverse effects were fatigue, muscle pain, headache, chills, redness/swelling at the injection site, joint pain, and, .
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